INDIAN STRUGGLE FOR INDEPENDENCE PDF

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The Indian independence movement was a series of activities whose ultimate aim was to end "Khurda Paik Rebellion – The First Independence War of India" (PDF). Orissa Review: 45– Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 April India's Struggle for Independence PDF Summary by Bipan Chandra is a book that contains the history of India and its struggle until reaching. India's Struggle for Independence - Bipin etgabentisttus.ga - Free ebook download as PDF File .pdf) or read book online for free.

No one is ready to sacrifice their independence at any cost, and so the Indians started their year-long fight against the British colonists. In a way, the British rule helped Indians unite together in a unified struggle for independence.

Forgetting all differences of age, sex, religion, language, caste, the Indians from all corners of the country gathered together to fight the well-equipped and cunning forces of the colonists.

He first employed the non-violent approach in South Africa where he was serving as an expatriate lawyer. He was hurt and angry when he witnessed discrimination and exploitation of colored people under Whites rule.

He organizes non-violent protests in the country which gained him fame and support from the people of South Africa. Back in India, he decided to employ his newly learned ways of civil protest in his homeland that was staggering to attain freedom from the British rule.

His first point of dissent with the British colonialists was the exorbitant taxes placed on Indian nationals. He organized the working class as well as those living in poverty to protest against the high taxes and social discrimination.

In , he became the leader of the Indian National Congress, a nationalist political party in India, which demanded nondiscriminatory laws, equal rights for men and women, peaceful inter-religious relations, overthrow of the caste system, and above all, Indian independence. During his lifetime, Gandhi carried out three major nationalist movements which are discussed below.

Gandhi, during this movement, believed that the British were only successful in maintaining control because the Indians were cooperative. If the residents of a country stop co-operating with the British, then the minority Britishers would be forced to give up.

The movement gained popularity, and soon, millions of people were boycotting British-run or cooperative establishments. This meant that people left their jobs, removed their children from schools, and avoided government offices. The name Mahatma Gandhi became popular. The individuals involved burned a police station, killing 23 police officials.

Gandhi stopped the movement, remaining true to his stance on non-violent protesting. On March 12, , protesters took part in the Dandi March, a campaign designed to resist taxes and protest the British monopoly on salt. Gandhi began the day, mile march with 79 followers and ended with thousands. When the protesters reached the coastal town of Dandi, they produced salt from saltwater without paying the British tax.

This act was accompanied by civil disobedience across the country.

The Dandi group continued moving south along the coast, producing salt along the way. It developed from its elite intellectual middle-class confines, and a moderate, loyalist agenda, to become by the inter-war years, a mass organisation.

It was an organisation which, despite the tremendous diversity of the sub-continent, was remarkable in achieving broad consensus over the decades. Also split within Congress were those who advocated violence and those who stressed non-violence.

Yet it was not a homogenous organisation and was often dominated by factionalism and opposing political strategies. This was exemplified by its splintering in into the so-called 'moderate' and 'extremist' wings, which reunited 10 years later.

Another example were the 'pro-changers' who believed working the constitutional structures to weaken it from within and 'no-changers' who wanted to distance themselves from the Raj during the s.

India’s Struggle for Independence PDF Summary

There was also a split within Congress between those who believed that violence was a justifiable weapon in the fight against imperial oppression whose most iconic figure was Subhas Chandra Bose, who went on to form the Indian National Army , and those who stressed non-violence.

The towering figure in this latter group was Mahatma Gandhi, who introduced a seismic new idiom of opposition in the shape of non-violent non-cooperation or 'satyagraha' meaning 'truth' or 'soul' force'. Gandhi oversaw three major nationwide movements which achieved varying degrees of success in , and in These mobilised the masses on the one hand, while provoking the authorities into draconian repression.

Much to Gandhi's distress, self-restraint among supporters often gave way to violence. Top Reasons for independence The British Raj unravelled quickly in the s, perhaps surprising after the empire in the east had so recently survived its greatest challenge in the shape of Japanese expansionism.

The reasons for independence were multifaceted and the result of both long and short term factors. The pressure from the rising tide of nationalism made running the empire politically and economically very challenging and increasingly not cost effective.

This pressure was embodied as much in the activities of large pan-national organisations like the Congress as in pressure from below - from the 'subalterns' through the acts of peasant and tribal resistance and revolt, trade union strikes and individual acts of subversion and violence.

10 most important movements that made India independent

With US foreign policy pressurising the end of western imperialism, it seemed only a matter of time before India gained its freedom. There were further symptoms of the disengagement from empire. European capital investment declined in the inter-war years and India went from a debtor country in World War One to a creditor in World War Two.

Britain's strategy of a gradual devolution of power, its representation to Indians through successive constitutional acts and a deliberate 'Indianisation' of the administration, gathered a momentum of its own. As a result, India moved inexorably towards self-government.

The actual timing of independence owed a great deal to World War Two and the demands it put on the British government and people. The Labour party had a tradition of supporting Indian claims for self-rule, and was elected to power in after a debilitating war which had reduced Britain to her knees.

Furthermore, with US foreign policy pressurising the end of western subjugation and imperialism, it seemed only a matter of time before India gained its freedom. Top Partition and religion The growth of Muslim separatism from the late 19th century and the rise of communal violence from the s to the virulent outbreaks of , were major contributory factors in the timing and shape of independence. However, it was only from the late s that it became inevitable that independence could only be achieved if accompanied by a partition.

This partition would take place along the subcontinent's north-western and north-eastern boundaries, creating two sovereign nations of India and Pakistan.

The Muslim League failed to achieve the confidence of the majority of Muslims in the elections of From the late 19th century, some of its political elites in northern India felt increasingly threatened by British devolution of power, which by the logic of numbers would mean the dominance of the majority Hindu community.

Seeking power and a political voice in the imperial structure, they organised themselves into a party to represent their interests, founding the Muslim League in They achieved something of a coup by persuading the British that they needed to safeguard the interests of the minorities, a demand that fed into British strategies of divide and rule.

India Struggle for Independence by Bipin Chandra

The inclusion of separate electorates along communal lines in the Act, subsequently enlarged in every successive constitutional act, enshrined a form of constitutional separatism.

While there is no denying that Islam and Hinduism were and are very different faiths, Muslims and Hindus continued to co-exist peaceably. There were, however, occasional violent outbursts which were driven more often than not by economic inequities. Even politically, the Congress and the League cooperated successfully during the Khilafat and Non Cooperation movements in Although Congress strove to stress its secular credentials with prominent Muslim members - for example, Maulana Azad served as its president through World War Two - it is criticised for failing to sufficiently recognise the importance of a conciliatory position towards the League in the inter-war years, and for its triumphant response to Congress's election victory.

The Muslim League advocated the idea of Pakistan in its annual session in , yet the idea did not achieve any political reality at the time. Furthermore, the League failed to achieve the confidence of the majority of the Muslim population in the elections of Top Hasty transfer of power The lack of confidence in the Muslim League among the Muslim population was to be dramatically reversed in the elections.

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The intervening years saw the rise of Jinnah and the League to political prominence through the successful exploitation of the wartime insecurities of the British, and the political vacuum created when the Congress ministries which had unanimously come to power in resigned en masse to protest at the government's unilateral decision to enter India into the war without consultation.

The creation of Pakistan as a land for Muslims nevertheless left a sizeable number of Muslims in an independent India.Imperial entities of India. Revolutionary Extraordinaire. At the time, newspapers and journals were something similar to public service. But in , India took the decision to remain in the commonwealth.

He gave up his practice and joined Non Co-operation Movement.