BADZ SZCZESLIWY ANDREW MATTHEWS PDF - "Bądź szczęśliwy!" to poradnik motywacyjny dla każdego kto chce zmienić swoje życie. W tej niewielkiej. odpowiada ksiazka Badz szczesliwy To ksiazka ktora pozwoli ci zrozumiec siebie nauczy cie zdrowego dystansu do wlasnej osoby oraz swoich niepowodzen. by Andrew Matthews First published Sort by. title, original . Bądź szczęśliwy! jak żyć z poczuciem bezpieczeństwa i wiarą w siebie. Author(s). Andrew.

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Celem tego opracowania jest ocena zasadnoci reklasykacji trichotillomanii w pitej edycji DSM do grupy zaburze obsesyjno-kompulsyjnych.

Opis dotyczy pacjentki cierpicej na trichotillomani z towarzyszc trichofagi. Pacjentka zostaa poddana terapii z zastosowaniem soli litu oraz klomipraminy co przynioso czciow popraw w zakresie przejawianych objaww. Nie tylko symptomatologia i przebieg kliniczny, ale rwnie to neurobiologiczne i genetyczne odrniaj trichotillomani od zaburze obsesyjno-kompulsyjnych, co w praktyce klinicznej przekada si na odmienne formy terapii i rny stopie odpowiedzi na prowadzone leczenie.

It has been classied pulling hair, into a group of habit and impulse disorders, along D Hair pulling which cannot be attributed to other with pathological gambling, pyromania and klepto- psychiatric disorders, and mania.

In most patients, the rst symptoms of TTM basis of the available literature highlighted the fact appear in early adolescence [4]. Clomipramine proved to be [5, 6].

However, this does not necessarily mean that more effective than placebo in reducing symptoms of women are more likely than men to suffer from trichotillomania, but a large number of side effects trichotillomania. It is believed that in the case of made it a second-line treatment. Naltrexone, an opio- men, it is simply easier to hide the hair loss as TTM id receptor antagonist, has been recently tested with resembles alopecia areata, and male patients suffer- some success in symptom reduction, as demonstrated ing from TTM may tend to shave the areas where in the studies involving TTM patients [16].

Another they pull their hair, such as their head. The most drug effective in the treatment of trichotillomania is common place of hair pulling is the scalp, although synthetic cannabinoid, dronabinol, though the stu- it may affect virtually every other area of the body dy involved only a small sample of TTM cases [17].

There are also some studies evaluating the effecti- For patients with trichotillomania it often takes sev- veness of drugs modulating dopaminergic transmis- eral hours a day to pull their hair.

They seldom ad- sion, such as bupropion [18] aripiprazole [19, 20], qu- mit that they manipulate their hair, try to hide the etiapine [21, 22] olanzapine [23, 24], risperidone [25, lesions and avoid doctor visits.

Hair pulling is often 26], haloperidol [27] and pimozide [28]. A promising accompanied by rituals, such as scratching the scalp, therapeutic measure seem to be the substances that selecting hair to pull, curling hair, hair shredding or affect glutamate neurotransmission in the nucleus storing it, and a signicant percentage of patients put accumbens, e.

Ian Morris (historian)

N-acetylcysteine [29, 30] and riluzo- plucked hairs into their mouth and some swallow it le [31]. In trichotillomania, parallel to other impulse trichophagia.

In extreme cases of a small percent- control disorders, mood stabilizers such as valproic age of patients, TTM can lead to the formation of acid [32] and topiramate [33] have also been used. Much more of a problem than the medical compli- Ms Z.

Until that time she had been treated ders.


Patients report problems in many areas of func- in various outpatient mental health clinics, diagno- tioning in the form of: 1 avoidance of social interac- sed with mood disorder, but with little effect, which tions 2 avoidance of interpersonal relationships 3 often led to arbitrary withdrawal of medication and problems in carrying out professional responsibilities, cessation of therapy.

She was initially treated with 4 family problems [6, 8]. After several mania usually increases in stressful situations, altho- months her medication was changed to clomiprami- ugh it also occurs while relaxing reading books, wat- ne, which Ms Z.

She wore a wig to the that what may underlie the disorder is a conict be- visit, because her hair was sparse and very short. People to pull it as a result of the episode of intense hair suffering from this disorder are seen as nervous, re- pulling a few weeks earlier Ill.

After a lon- Is trichotillomania a disorder of the obsessive-compulsive spectrum?

A case report Ill. In the absence of impulsively and could not give reasons for her be- clinical improvement on the outpatient basis, the pa- haviour. She told the psychiatrist that she was deli- tient was encouraged to continue with the diagnosis vered at term, by forces of nature, without perinatal and treatment in the inpatient conditions. The patient complications and her early childhood development reported in the hospital within the prescribed period was uneventful.

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She grew up in a complete family, in early She was educa- emia. The image of the two-phase computed tomo- ted to the level of secondary education, never expe- graphy revealed sections of slight cortical atrophy in rienced learning or social problems at school.

After fronto-temporal area. Physical examination revealed graduation from the secondary school she took a job resistance in the upper abdomen, and the increased as an accountant and worked for one employer who tension of the abdominal wall; and abdominal ultra- dismissed her while she was undergoing psychiatric sound report included slight echoes in communication treatment.

To date, she had no other health compla- with the mucous membrane of the stomach. The EEG, ints, she received no treatment for any other chronic TSH, FT3, FT4, routine biochemical tests and urina- conditions and, to the best of her knowledge, there lysis revealed no abnormalities. After a few weeks, she fect and considerable agitation. She spoke in a hushed reported a slight improvement in the frequency of voice, her speech was interrupted by crying.

Her hair pulling and amount of plucked hair, but, shor- thought process was logical and goal directed, she de- tly afterwards, she noted recurrence of symptoms nied any psychotic symptoms. When asked, she denied in the severity similar to the pre-treatment period. On the obsessive-com- jective of potentializing treatment, and improvement pulsive symptoms scale Y-BOCS she scored 9 points of sleep disturbances, which the patient complained 16 is considered to be the cutoff point for obsessive- of for some time.

The only positive effect of olanza- compulsive disorder , 2 points each in questions 6, 7, pine, according to the patient, was the weight gain, 9, 10, and one point in question 8.

10_PPiN_4_2013_en (1)

The examination was but there was no clinical improvement of the primary carried out to assess the patients personality and disease. In the meantime it was suggested that the cognitive functioning. The evaluation is based upon Agata Nowacka, Antoni Florkowski, Marta Broniarczyk-Czarniak, Joanna acisz, Agata Orzechowska the following clinical methods and psychometric visual and motor coordination, visual memory and tests standard and experimental clinical trials : con- ability to learn all below average.

During the in- in difcult situations responding with helplessness, terview, the patient was calm, answered the questions annoyance and lack of initiative, the use of ineffecti- logically and comprehensively.

She revealed the atti- ve ways of coping with stress, anxiety, shyness and tude of anxiety and withdrawal, and lowered motiva- low self-esteem; reduced capacity in adopting a rm tion to work after experiencing failure.

The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory uidity and efciency of graphomotor skills that may MMPI , validity scales indicated an honest arise from the attitude of anxiety and withdrawal after attitude towards the study, with no tenden- failure.

The results sonality disorder, and disorders in the area of habits in indicated mainly the following: low mood, wor- the form of trichotillomania. No hair pulling of future, limited ability to adopt a rm attitude episodes were observed in the hospital. The patients in interpersonal relationships, difculty making sleep quality improved. She also conrmed mood im- decisions and also feeling of helplessness when provement and decreased liability of affect. After ap- solving problems. The Rey-Osterrieth Figure Test copy points, discharged to the gastroenterology ward for possible reproduction Further psychiatric and psycho- al memory capacity on borderline of norm and therapeutic care was recommended in the outpatient pathology.

The patient regularly reported 6, 8, 10, 10, 9, 10, 10, 10, 10, 10, after delay 9 : to the visits in the Mental Health Outpatient Clinic maintained correct attention, learning ability as but she refused psychotherapy.

She said that she did well as short and long-term auditory memory, not pull her hair for a month after leaving the hospital 4. Verbal Fluency Test I, II-9, III : categorial but, with time, her habit of involuntary hair pulling and literal verbal uency as well as semantic and returned, though with lower intensity and concerned lexical memory below norm, individual hair.

Her hair gradually returned to its nor- 5. B-1min25s : effectiveness of visual-spatial wor- king memory below average. Stroop Test Is, 0 errors, II-1min7s, 0 errors. According 7. In the latest, fth editionof DSM, tri- that among patients who experience increased tension chotillomania has been reclassied to the group of and relief accompanying hair pulling, these symptoms obsessive-compulsive and related disorders which are not constant or reproducible in all episodes of hair we put to discussion in this paper.

An additional ob- pulling. Moreover the groups of patients who expe- stacle in determining the etiology and nosological po- rience tension and those who do not, hardly differ in sition of this disorder is the small number of studies terms of clinical correlates [41, 42]. Then how should trichotillomania be classied if A theoretical construct justifying the reclassi- placing it with obsessive-compulsive and related dis- cation of trichotillomania in the latest edition of the orders seems controversial for at least a few reasons?

DSM is the notion of the obsessive-compulsive di- Symptomatology. Research on OCD and TTM sorder spectrum, which would include such disorders indicates certain symptomatological similarities. For such as Tourettes syndrome, body dysmorphic disor- example trichotillomania patients repeatedly and im- der, hypochondriacal disorder, explosive personali- pulsively pull their hair, which is often accompanied ty disorders, eating disorders, intentional self-harm, by the elements of compulsions in the form of ritu- kleptomania, pathological hoarding or gambling als, i.

The combination of this group of disorders in swallowing. However, TTM patients hardly experien- a single diagnostic category is to be based on the simi- ce obsessive thoughts prior to hair pulling and, con- larity of symptoms, comorbidity observed, heredity, trary to OCD, hair pulling produces the feeling of ple- clinical course, neurobiological background and neu- asure, gratication [43, 44].

More similarity as far as ropsychological tests results. The structure of the dia- symptoms are concerned has been observed between gnostic criteria itself testies against the positioning TTM and conduct disorders, such as nail biting and of trichotillomania among impulse control disorders.

Many authors, including the researchers from the Clinical course. Several studies have evaluated the sist the behavior C Pleasure, gratication, or relief frequency of co-occurrence of OCD and potential when pulling out the hair are not met in many of the disorders from the obsessive-compulsive disorder cases [6, 39, 40].

Minor importance of the above cri- spectrum OCSD.

Most of them have conrmed Agata Nowacka, Antoni Florkowski, Marta Broniarczyk-Czarniak, Joanna acisz, Agata Orzechowska a statistically signicant more frequent coexistence were shown, the correlation was not strong.

The prevalence of tri- cits in motor response inhibition and patients with chotillomania in the studies involving OCD patients OCD lower scores in cognitive exibility [68]. Both trichotillomania and by high comorbidity with mood disorders and anxiety OCD are treated with serotonergic drugs. Studies disorders, but there is a different comorbidity pattern indicate that, in contrast to OCD, trichotillomanias for each of these illnesses more frequent depression treatment with SSRIs often proves to be ineffective or in the OCD group and higher psychiatric comorbidi- produces unstable effects [15, 28].

In both disorders ty than in the case of trichotillomania patients [44]. Among the therapeutic techniqu- as pyromania and pathological hazard, which puts es used in TTM are positive motivation, training of their common etiology into doubt [44, 51, 52].

On the habit self-control and a reward and punishment sys- other hand high comorbidity has been shown between tem [15, 70]. Some patients suffering from trichotillo- TTM and stereotypical behaviour such as pathologi- mania achieve partial control over the hair pulling in cal skin picking [47, 53]. In the families of per- tely, but by limiting the pulling only to certain areas sons affected by TTM, cases of OCD are statistical- or reducing the quantity of hair that can be removed ly more frequent than in the control group.

The study in a single episode [71]. Bienvenu stated that among relatives response prevention EPR , while in the case of TTM of patients with OCD, all conduct disorders inclu- it is the therapy based on the training of unlearning ding trichotillomania, nail biting or pathological skin habits, also effective in Tourettes syndrome and in picking are more frequent than in the control group pathological skin picking [15, 72, 73].

Slightly lowered mood was observed in with Tourettes syndrome, obsessive-compulsive dis- the clinical picture which did not meet the criteria of order and trichotillomania []. The patient showed passive atti- Neurobiology.

The involvement of fronto-striatal tude and displayed features of avoidant personality circuits is suggested both in OCD and TTM [] disorder. Hair pulling in her case was an impulsive though it was not conrmed unequivocally by other behaviour but it was not accompanied by obsessive studies [62, 63]. In patients with trichotillomania, un- thoughts and so her score in the obsessive-compul- like in OCD, prolactin secretion was not compromised sive scale was relatively low, in spite of considerably in response to administration of 1- 3-chlorophenylo affected general functioning.

The patient had a li- piperazine, serotonin receptor agonist, nor were there mited insight into her symptoms, she could not give abnormalities in concentrations of serotonin metaboli- any reasons for her behaviour and denied that it had tes in the cerebrospinal uid [64, 65]. The ini- Cognitive functioning. There are studies that com- tial therapy with the use of serotonergic and noradre- pared the cognitive functioning in TTM and OCD, in- nergic drugs did not bring the expected results even cluding concentration, memory processes, executive after potentializing of the treatment with dopamine functions, graphomotor and planning skills.

Patients receptor antagonist. Only a combination of a tricyclic with the diagnosis of TTM and OCD had lower scores antidepressant with lithium led to a satisfactory im- in tests assessing executive functions, nonverbal me- provement in impulsive hair pulling. As the patient mory and spatial planning ability. These studies did had no motivation to undertake psychotherapy it was not allow to formulate clear conclusions, regarding difcult to assess the extent to which this additional the correlation between the analysed cognitive func- therapeutic method could possibly lead to the reduc- tions.

Even when statistically signicant relationships tion in her symptoms.

Is trichotillomania a disorder of the obsessive-compulsive spectrum? Use of the selective serotonin reup- take inhibitor citalopram in treatment of trichotillomania. European Both the publications that we have quoted in this Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience.

Serotonergic paper and the case we have presented pose a ques- drugs in trichotillomania: Treatment results in 12 patients. Journal of tion on how justied is the suggested relationship Nervous and Mental Disease. It is not only the symptomatology and A controlled trial of venlafaxine in trichotillomania: Interim phase clinical course but also though insufciently studied i results. Psychopharmacology Bulletin. A pla- differentiate between these two disorders, which cebo-controlled trial of cognitive-behavioral therapy and clomiprami- in clinical practice, leads to different therapy mea- ne in trichotillomania.

Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. Systematic re- accept that trichotillomania is a disorder from the view: Pharmacological and behavioral treatment for trichotillomania. OCD spectrum, it certainly requires individual ap- Biological Psychiatry.


De Sousa A. An open-label pilot study of naltrexone in childhood- not motivate therapeutic decisions. However, we are onset trichotillomania. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psycho- hopeful that the future directions of research on be- pharmacology. Dronabinol, a can- nabinoid agonist, reduces hair pulling in trichotillomania: A pilot stu- disorders will allow for a better understanding and dy.

Klipstein KG, Berman L. Bupropion xl for the sustained treatment of these conditions. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology. Estimated lifetime prevalence Yasui-Furukori N, Kaneko S. Morris grew up in the United Kingdom. It provides details of the evidence and the statistical methods used by Morris to construct the social development index that he used in Why the West Rules to compare long-term Eastern and Western history. What Is It Good for? Sincehe has been at Stanford.

It has been translated into 13 languages. Ian Matthew Morris born 27 January is a British archaeologist, historian and academic. The book is being translated into Chinese. Ian Morris historian — Wikipedia Anyone who does not believe there are lessons to be learned from history should start here.

Ian Morris plans to develop his views on the first-millennium BC ewlt the shift from religion-based power to bureaucratic and military one, and the rise of Axial thought in his new book. The International Studies Association and Social Science History Association devoted panels to discussing the book at their annual meetings.Lately, I have been feeling quite a bit of despair.

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Yang aku ingat, aku membeli buku ini di Gramedia Matraman Jakarta. If you find yourself down This is a great book filled with little ways to make your life the one you want. Just a moment while we sign you in to your Goodreads account.

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