Project Gutenberg · 59, free ebooks · 18 by Benjamin Franklin. The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin by Benjamin Franklin. Book Cover. Download. 7 Dimensionado sistemas on etgabentisttus.ga · Un CV Mas ConVincente - Faust, Michael · Tarjeta de Referencia LibreOffice 4 · Carnegie - Descubrase Como Lider. Benjamin Franklin was born in Milk Street, Boston, on Janu- . Dr. Franklin used to style him. B. .. De Foe's, called an Essay on Projects, and another of Dr.
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In , Franklin returned to Philadelphia and was elected as the Pennsylvania delegate to the Second Continental Congress.
By this time the Revolutionary War had begun. Franklin played an important role in the early part of the Revolutionary War. He was part of the committee that wrote the Declaration of Independence and was the nation's first Postmaster General. He spent the next few years gathering support in France for the American Revolution.
In , France allied with the colonies in their fight against England. The alliance with France would prove to be one of the most important factors in the American victory.
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Franklin remained in France throughout the war. In , he helped to negotiate an end to the Revolutionary War with the Treaty of Paris. Cooley What did Benjamin Franklin invent? As if being a prolific writer and a major player in the founding of the United States wasn't enough, Ben Franklin still found time to be a prominent inventor and scientist. Perhaps Ben Franklin is most famous for his experiments with electricity.
He performed many experiments that proved that lightning is in fact electricity. This led to his invention of the lighting rod, which helps to keep buildings safe from lighting. Other inventions by Ben Franklin include bifocals a type of glasses , the Franklin stove, an odometer for a carriage, and the glass harmonica.
In science he studied and made discoveries in the areas of electricity, cooling, meteorology, printing, and the wave theory of light. Other firsts Ben Franklin was involved in include starting the first lending library in America, founding the University of Pennsylvania, and establishing the first fire department in Pennsylvania. He participated in the Constitutional Convention and became the only founding father to sign the Declaration of Independence, the Treaty of Alliance with France, the Treaty of Paris, and the Constitution.
He also served as the President of Pennsylvania like the governor. Franklin died in Philadelphia on April 17, Later in life, Ben set his slaves free and became a fighter for the freedom of slaves. He didn't patent any of his many inventions, letting people use his ideas for free.
Franklin became fairly wealthy from the publishing of Poor Richard's Almanack. He loved playing chess and was inducted into the U. Chess Hall of Fame in As a teenager, Franklin had several letters published in his brother's newspaper under the fake name "Silence Dogood.
Part Two[ edit ] The second part begins with two letters Franklin received in the early s while in Paris , encouraging him to continue the Autobiography, of which both correspondents have read Part One. Although Franklin does not say so, there had been a breach with his son William after the writing of Part One, since the father had sided with the Revolutionaries and the son had remained loyal to the British Crown.
At Passy, a suburb of Paris, Franklin begins Part Two in , giving a more detailed account of his public library plan.
The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin
He then discusses his "bold and arduous Project of arriving at moral Perfection", listing thirteen virtues he wishes to perfect in himself. He creates a book with columns for each day of the week, in which he marks with black spots his offenses against each virtue.
He eventually realizes that perfection is not to be attained, but feels himself better and happier because of his attempt. Part Three[ edit ] Beginning in August when Franklin had returned to Philadelphia, the author says he will not be able to utilize his papers as much as he had expected, since many were lost in the recent Revolutionary War.
He has, however, found and quotes a couple of his writings from the s that survived. One is the "Substance of an intended Creed" consisting of what he then considered to be the "Essentials" of all religions. He had intended this as a basis for a projected sect but, Franklin says, did not pursue the project. In , Franklin first publishes his Poor Richard's Almanac , which becomes very successful. He also continues his profitable newspaper. In , a preacher named Rev.
Samuel Hemphill arrives from County Tyrone Ireland; Franklin supports him and writes pamphlets on his behalf. However, someone finds out that Hemphill has been plagiarizing portions of his sermons from others, although Franklin rationalizes this by saying he would rather hear good sermons taken from others than poor sermons of the man's own composition.
Franklin studies languages, reconciles with his brother James, and loses a four-year-old son to smallpox. Franklin's club, the Junto , grows and breaks up into subordinate clubs. Franklin becomes Clerk of the General Assembly in thus entering politics for the first time, and the following year becomes Comptroller to the Postmaster General , which makes it easier to get reports and fulfill subscriptions for his newspaper.
He proposes improvements to the city' watch and fire prevention regulations. The famed preacher George Whitefield arrives in , and despite significant differences in their religious beliefs, Franklin assists Whitefield by printing his sermons and journals and lodging him in his house.
As Franklin continues to succeed, he provides the capital for several of his workers to start printing houses of their own in other colonies. He makes further proposals for the public good, including some for the defense of Pennsylvania, which cause him to contend with the pacifist position of the Quakers. In he invents the Franklin stove , refusing a patent on the device because it was for "the good of the people". He proposes an academy, which opens after money is raised by subscription for it and it expands so much that a new building has to be constructed for it.
Franklin obtains other governmental positions city councilman , alderman , burgess, justice of the peace and helps negotiate a treaty with the Indians.
After helping Dr. Thomas Bond establish a hospital , he helps pave the streets of Philadelphia and draws up a proposal for Dr. John Fothergill about doing the same in London.
In Franklin becomes Deputy Postmaster General. The next year, as war with the French is expected, representatives of the several colonies, including Franklin, meet with the Indians to discuss defense; Franklin at this time draws up a proposal for the union of the colonies, but it is not adopted. General Braddock arrives with two regiments , and Franklin helps him secure wagons and horses, but the general refuses to take Ben's warning about danger from hostile Indians during Braddock's planned march to Frontenac now Kingston, Ontario.
When Braddock's troops are subsequently attacked, the general is mortally wounded and his forces abandon their supplies and flee. A militia is formed on the basis of a proposal by Benjamin Franklin, and the governor asks him to take command of the northwestern frontier.
With his son as aide de camp , Franklin heads for Gnadenhut, raising men for the militia and building forts. Returning to Philadelphia, he is chosen colonel of the regiment ; his officers honor him by personally escorting him out of town. This attention offends the proprietor of the colony Thomas Penn , son of William Penn when someone writes an account of it in a letter to him, whereupon the proprietor complains to the government in England about Franklin.
Declining to respond on the grounds that anyone could duplicate and thus verify his experiments, Franklin sees another French author refute Nollet, and as Franklin's book is translated into other languages, its views are gradually accepted and Nollet's are discarded.
Franklin is also voted an honorary member of the Royal Society. A new governor arrives, but disputes between the assembly and the governor continue.
Since the colonial governors are bound to fulfill the instructions issued by the colony's proprietor, there is a continuing struggle for power between the legislature and the governor and proprietor.
The assembly is on the verge of sending Franklin to England to petition the King against the governor and proprietor, but meanwhile Lord Loudoun arrives on behalf of the English government to mediate the differences. Franklin nevertheless goes to England accompanied by his son, after stopping at New York and making an unsuccessful attempt to be recompensed by Loudoun for his outlay of funds during his militia service.
They arrive in England on July 27, Part Four[ edit ] Written sometime between November and Franklin's death on April 17, , this section is very brief. After Franklin and his son arrive in London, the former is counselled by Dr.
Fothergill on the best way to advocate his cause on behalf of the colonies. Franklin visits Lord Grenville, president of the King's Privy Council , who asserts that the king is the legislator of the colonies.
Franklin then meets the proprietaries the switch to the plural is Franklin's, so apparently others besides Thomas Penn are involved. But the respective sides are far from any kind of agreement. The proprietaries ask Franklin to write a summary of the colonists' complaints; when he does so, their solicitor for reasons of personal enmity delays a response.
Over a year later, the proprietaries finally respond to the assembly, regarding the summary to be a "flimsy Justification of their Conduct. While the assembly thanks Franklin, the proprietaries, enraged at the governor, turn him out and threaten legal action against him; in the last sentence, Franklin tells us the governor "despis'd the Threats, and they were never put in Execution".
Publication history[ edit ] Title page of the original edition of the autobiography in French. The Autobiography remained unpublished during Franklin's lifetime. This translation of Part One only was based on a flawed transcript made of Franklin's manuscript before he had revised it. This French translation was then retranslated into English in two London publications of , and one of the London editions served as a basis for a retranslation into French in in an edition which also included a fragment of Part Two.
Franklin did not include Part Four because he had previously traded away the original hand-written holograph of the Autobiography for a copy that contained only the first three parts. Furthermore, he felt free to make unauthoritative stylistic revisions to his grandfather's autobiography, and on occasion followed the translated and retranslated versions mentioned above rather than Ben Franklin's original text.
Franklin's text was the standard version of the Autobiography for half a century, until John Bigelow downloadd the original manuscript in France and in published the most reliable text that had yet appeared, including the first English publication of Part Four.
In , J.
Leo Lemay and P. Zall produced The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin: A Genetic Text, attempting to show all revisions and cancellations in the holograph manuscript. This, the most accurate edition of all so far published, served as a basis for Benjamin Franklin's Autobiography: A Norton Critical Edition and for the text of this autobiography printed in the Library of America's edition of Franklin's Writings.
The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin also became the first full-length audiobook in history, which was voiced by actor Michael Rye and released in Although not the wealthiest or the most powerful, he is undoubtedly, in the versatility of his genius and achievements, the greatest of our self-made men.
Autobiografia Benjamin Franklin
The simple yet graphic story in the Autobiography of his steady rise from humble boyhood in a tallow-chandler shop, by industry, economy, and perseverance in self-improvement, to eminence, is the most remarkable of all the remarkable histories of our self-made men. It is in itself a wonderful illustration of the results possible to be attained in a land of unequaled opportunity by following Franklin's maxims.
It is often considered the first American book to be taken seriously by Europeans as literature. Lawrence wrote a notable invective against the "middle-sized, sturdy, snuff-coloured Doctor Franklin"  in , finding considerable fault with Franklin's attempt at crafting precepts of virtue and at perfecting himself.
Nevertheless, responses to The Autobiography have generally been more positive than Twain's or Lawrence's, with most readers recognizing it as a classic of literature and relating to the narrative voice of the author. In this work, Franklin's persona comes alive and presents a man whose greatness does not keep him from being down-to-earth and approachable, who faces up to mistakes and blunders "errata" he has committed in life, and who presents personal success as something within the reach of anyone willing to work hard enough for it.
Manuscripts and editions to [ edit ] Manuscripts Lost original draft, Printed editions — Stuber, Henry. Carey, Mathew. Internet Archive Franklin, Benjamin. Translated by Jacques Gibelin. Paris: F. Buisson Libraire, Franklin, Benjamin. Edited by Benjamin Vaughan and Richard Price. London: Printed for G. Robinson, The private life of the late Benjamin Franklin. London: J. Parsons, The life of Dr.
Benjamin Franklin. Philadelphia: Benjamin Johnson, Weimar: Im Verlage des Industrie-Comptoirs, The life of Doctor Benjamin Franklin. Edited by Richard Price.This translation of Part One only was based on a flawed transcript made of Franklin's manuscript before he had revised it. They arrive in England on July 27, Franklin and his friends in the Junto club get together and decide to create a public lending organization, which is Philadelphia's first library.
Furthermore, he felt free to make unauthoritative stylistic revisions to his grandfather's autobiography, and on occasion followed the translated and retranslated versions mentioned above rather than Ben Franklin's original text. Franklin is a good type of our American manhood. He performed many experiments that proved that lightning is in fact electricity. By this time the Revolutionary War had begun.
When Hugh Meredith's father experiences financial setbacks and cannot continue backing the partnership, two friends separately offer to lend Franklin the money he needs to stay in business; the partnership amicably dissolves as Meredith goes to North Carolina , and Franklin takes from each friend half the needed sum, continuing his business in his own name.
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